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  • GRAIN LEGUMES COLLECTION FROM THE WORLD GENE POOL OF ALL-RUSSIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF PLANT GROWING

    2014-05-21 08:02:05 Опубликовано: 21 мая 2014 г. в 8:02 Скачать файл

    УДК 635.65

    КОЛЛЕКЦИЯ ЗЕРНОБОБОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР ИЗ МИРОВОГО ГЕНОФОНДА ВИР КАК БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ РЕСУРС

    GRAIN LEGUMES COLLECTION

     FROM THE WORLD GENE POOL OF ALL-RUSSIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF PLANT GROWING AS A BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE

     

    Золотарева П., Ракина М.С.

    Научный руководитель: Завьялова Г.А.

    ФГБОУ ВПО «Кемеровский ГСХИ», Кемерово

     

    В статье анализируются данные исследований генетических ресурсов образцов зернобобовых культур из коллекции ВИР. Отмечается возможность успешного возделывания зернобобовых культур в условиях Западной Сибири и Кемеровской области.

     

    Grain legumes are one of the main sources of valuable vegetable protein. For millions of people in the world soybeans were and still are the most important source of protein and fat. At present such high-protein grain legumes as bean, chick-pea and lentil are of the same importance.

    Due to the nutritional value grain legumes are recognized as a part of «a healthy diet»; they have a huge bioresource potential and occupy leading position in the development of food technologies of the third generation which provide a more complete and deep processing of raw materials and regulate the chemical composition according to the criteria of food and biological value. Now it is undeniable that in the near future human nutrition will be improved due to the increased use of food rich in vegetable protein [2].

    Analysts consider that the process of intensive biologisation of farming and crop production by reducing the anthropogenic impact on the biosphere by minimizing tillage and reduced use of chemicals will continue in the XXI century. Thereby it is necessary to increase the total area for grain legumes, to expand their range as well as to introduce some new non-traditional crops.

    In conditions of Siberia grain legumes don’t ripen in all climatic zones, their annual yield is unstable. In the structure of sown area of Western Siberia they make only 1-2 %, and from all the diversity of the legumes mainly peas and vetch are cultivated [1]. Expanding the range and area of cultivation of these crops in Siberia can only occur through selection and distribution of new adaptive varieties. Variety is one of the most important factors increasing productivity and improving the quality of product. Only a high adaptability of a variety can provide the stability of yield under different environmental conditions [5]. The selection of these varieties depends on the first stage of the selection process - the creation and study of the source material.

    Gain legumes collection from N. I. Vavilov All-Russia Research Institute of Plant growing characterized by a rich ecological and geographical diversity, should be an important source of material for their active involvement in the adaptive selection and a tool to enhance its efficacy in creating sustainable ecologically oriented agriculture [3].

    The interest in soybeans provided an impetus to study their collection material of various ecological and geographical origins. From 1995 to 2009 the scientists of Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute gathered collecting samples of this crop from selection establishments in Western Siberia, the Far East and from the world pool collection of N.V. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant growing. These years, more than 2,000 collection samples of soybeans on the main economically valuable properties have been studied in the conditions of Kemerovo region. In 2007 - 2009 the collection was enhanced with new samples of legumes (soybeans, beans, lentils and chickpeas). The samples of varieties increasing bioresource potential of leguminous crops in the forest-steppe zone of Kemerovo region were singled out. As a result of the phytopathological analysis of seeds the species composition of fungi of the genus Fusarium was revealed for the conditions of Kemerovo region. The samples were studied for resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases. The nature of the relationship of the main economically valuable properties of legumes was established for the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of Kemerovo region. Regression analysis singled out the flexible samples for using in adaptive selection.

    In order to enhance bioresource potential the samples and the promising lines of soybeans, beans and lentils characterized by economically valuable properties (fast-ripening, productive, relatively resistant to diseases, high in protein and oil) were studied, singled out and recommended. The best of them are used in the selection process in the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture (Omsk), the Far East Regional Research Centre of the Russian Agricultural Academy (Primorye Territory, settlement Timiryazevskiy), Altai Agricultural Research Institute of the Russian Agricultural Academy (Barnaul), the Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (Irkutsk). The results of studying the main economically valuable properties in samples of grain legumes for resistance to diseases obtained by the Kemerovo scientists are used by N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute in compiling catalogs of the world collection (Saint- Petersburg). The results of studies were included in the production recommendations for farm managers and farmers «Phytosanitary technologies of soybean cultivation».

    Thus, the scientists have proved the possibility of successful cultivation of grain legumes in Western Siberia and Kemerovo region. At this stage of development of science genetic resources of and the modern selection practices can contribute to the creation and introduction of new varieties of adaptive grain legumes.

     

    Литература

    1.      Васякин, Н.И. Селекция зернобобовых культур в Западной Сибири / дис. … д-ра с.-х. наук. – Новосибирск: РАСХН. Сиб. отд-ние, 2003. – 80 с.

    2.      Вишнякова, М.А. Коллекция зерновых бобовых культур ВИР как источник исходного материала для актуальных и перспективных направлений селекции / М.А. Вишнякова // Селекцiя i насiнництво : мiжвiдомчий тематичний науковий збiрник. – Харкiв, 2005. – С. 75-83.

    3.      Вишнякова, М.А. Генофонд зернобобовых культур и адаптивная селекция как факторы биологизации и экологизации растениеводства М.А. Вишнякова // Сельскохозяйственная биология. – 2008. – № 3. – С. 3-23.

    4.      Заостровных, В.И. Фитосанитарные технологии возделывания сои: Рекомендации производству для руководителей хозяйств, фермеров и молодых специалистов, а также для студентов с.-х. вузов / В.И. Заостровных, М.С. Ракина. – Кемерово : КемГСХИ, 2010. – 104 с.

    5.      Рутц, Р.И. История развития селекционной работы и сорта сельскохозяйственных культур Сибирского НИИСХ / Сиб. отд-ние науч.-исслед. ин-т сел. хоз-ва / Р.И. Рутц. – Новосибирск: Юпитер, 2004. – 152 с.

     

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    Комментарии (2)
    • Selyanin (18 июня 2014 г. в 12:39): Учи английский)
    • Егор (4 июня 2014 г. в 13:25): Обрадовался статье, а она на английском, ничего не понимаю( Опубликуйте на русском, пожалуйста.
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